From India, M., along with the persecuted Buddhists, was brought to Tibet in the VIII-IX centuries. our reckoning, when Indian M. was in complete decline. And until now, the lamas are content with the mental wealth that the ancient Hindus bequeathed to them. M. is taught by a special lama (emchilama) who visits the sick with his students. The basis of life is, like the Indians, air, warmth and phlegm. The number of diseases is very large due to the fact that a seizure, any significant, gives rise to the isolation of suffering into a special category. Spells are also used to exorcise spirits - a remnant of prehistoric M. In Tibet, we find special hospitals for animals. Surgery and obstetrics do not exist.
The literature is enormous; the essay "Pu-tze-fang" contains 168 books and 1960 treatises and provides guidance for the treatment of diseases; "Shin-shi-chun-shin" is a collection of 120 books; in addition, there are many other very voluminous works. There are a lot of doctors in China, because every literate person, after reading medical essays, considers himself capable of healing; there are, however, doctors who are eligible for treatment after an exam or by inheritance. Anatomy doesn't exist.
The basis of physiology is the view of the existence of two principles: active (yang) and passive (in); their consent maintains health, disorder causes disease. When recognizing a disease, attention is paid to the pulse; 3 special pulses are recognized on each hand, and each of them is divided into 24 types. In this case, it is necessary to observe 7 rules of caution. Chinese remedies are an impossibly variegated mixture.
Plants, inorganic compounds, bones, horns, teeth, animal hair, and all kinds of compartments like urine, feces and even human sweat and blood are used here! Surgery is almost non-existent; with various sufferings, punctures are made with a needle or moxibustion; abscesses do not open; in general, bloody operations are not performed. They resort to the methods of exorcising spirits. Until very recently, Chinese medicine was adopted in Japan, and it is still prevalent in the lower classes of the population. It should be noted the frequent use of baths, and, moreover, so hot that an unusual person burns his fingers. Such baths are undoubtedly useful for certain diseases.
In Egyptian M. we find a mixture of the wildest, most superstitious, prehistoric views with sound, rigorously tested observations and conclusions. Every doctor was ordered to follow only those rules that the priests set out in special writings. All discoveries in M. are attributed to gods and goddesses: Osiris, Isis, Horus, the goddess Bupastis and Thoth.
Medicine was in the hands of the priests - the pastors; they received the sick in the temples. M. was taught in special schools. Hygiene played a prominent role in Egypt; the way of life of citizens, their food, sleep, washing were precisely determined. Many of these rules were borrowed by the Jews and entered into their sacred books.
Etiam eget libero et erat eleifend consectetur a nec lectus. Sed id tellus lorem. Suspendisse sed venenatis odio, quis lobortis eros.
Every 3 days (up to another -3 months) it was prescribed to take laxatives and emetics to cleanse the body; fasting was appointed at certain intervals. Health was also supported by games. Special enumerators kept records of births and deaths, indicating the causes of diseases. Burials were carried out in cemeteries, in the mountains; for the corpses of kings, special mounds were erected in the form of pyramids.
The corpses of free citizens were embalmed, in 3 types, in accordance with the social status of the deceased. Both anatomy and physiology are almost completely absent in Egyptian M. The body is controlled by 4 spirits (deans). Until the age of 50, the body increases in weight annually by 1/2 lot, and later begins to decrease, which is why death occurs.
The Egyptians knew the properties of 700 remedies that were extracted from all 3 kingdoms of nature. Opium and hashish were known. In comparison with modern M., there were not very many internal means; medicines were always given fresh and, moreover, warmed up; also the means were kneaded with dough and given in the form of bread.
To administer the medicine to the child, the nurse took it and it was delivered to the infant with milk. Means that were not administered by mouth were very diverse: enemas, tampons, plugs, injections, rubbing, fumigation, ointments, poultices. The teeth were filled, the missing ones were replaced with artificial ones, which were tied with gold wires to the adjacent teeth.
ccording to Ebers, spells were of importance only to the lower classes. Egyptian physicians have achieved a remarkable art in the treatment of eye diseases; medications were prescribed and operations performed.
A Egyptian anemia is a kind of disease, the origin of which from parasites has been explained only recently; this reason, however, is indicated quite accurately in the papyri. Diseases of the skin and especially leprosy were common; leprosy was considered contagious, which is why patients retired.
The surgery of the Egyptians was considerably inferior to that of the Indian, but the dressing of the wounds was carried out quite satisfactorily; dressings changed in case of fractures; ulcers were sprinkled with powders or treated with ointments. Obstetrics was pretty developed; many techniques for the management of irregular childbirth, as well as for the treatment of female diseases and infertility were borrowed from the Egyptians by the Greeks and described by Greek doctors.
The founder of the Greek. M. recognized Aesculapius - an Egyptian who moved to Greece; he studied M. under the centaur Chiron - a demigod also of foreign origin. Aesculapius was the origin of the priests who were engaged in healing - the Asclepiades. The structure of the priestly estate in ancient Greece is quite similar to that in Egypt. Medical knowledge passed from father to son.
The medical class kept this character for many centuries, but the conditions of civil life then made a revolution, very useful for the success of M. The treatment took place in churches, of which there were more than 320. In the temple, healing took place through incubation: the patient, who prayed during the day, lay down in the temple and fell asleep; God appeared in a dream and announced his will. In Greece, there were several medical schools, which competed with one another and, trying to attract more students, began to teach M. and secular people. The schools that were in Cyrene, Crotone and Rhodes were especially famous.
All of them had already fallen into decay when two new ones arose: in Cnidus and on the island of Kos. The most remarkable was the last one; Hippocrates emerged from it. These two schools differed significantly in direction. On Kos, the disease was considered a common suffering and was treated accordingly, and attention was paid to the physique and otherfeatures of the patient. The school of Cnidus saw disease as local suffering, studied seizures, and acted on local disorder; there were many famous doctors in this school; of these, Eirithon enjoyed particular fame.
The school on Kos was at first lower than the Cnidan school, but with the performance on the stage of Hippocrates, it left its rival far behind. In addition to temples, schools of thought were another source of medical knowledge. They studied all of nature, and therefore disease. Philosophers illuminated M. from the other side than medical practitioners - namely, they developed her scientific side; they, moreover, through their conversations, disseminated medical knowledge among the educated public. The third source of M. was gymnastics.
The people who were in charge of it expanded the range of their actions and treated the fractures and dislocations that were often observed in the Palestinians. Ikk from Tarentum paid special attention to nutrition, and this branch of knowledge then took a special development.
Herodikus of Selimvria applied gymnastics to the treatment of chronic diseases, and the success of his techniques forced many patients to seek help not in temples, but in gymnasiums.
So, in temples, schools of philosophy, and gymnasiums M. was studied from various angles. The significance of Hippocrates lies in the fact that he was able to tie together all disparate trends, and he is rightly called the father of M. His writings were the subject of special study; explanations to them and their criticism constitute a special library.
The causes of diseases are divided into external and internal; the first include: seasons, temperature, water, terrain; to the second - individual, depending on nutrition and human activities.
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